Literalis Blog

Multi-Language Vendors and the ‘Chain of Translation’

Posted by: On: November 15, 2016

Over the past decade, the number of translation jobs that pass through large translation agencies—also known as Multi-Language Vendors (MLVs)—has increased to account for up 60% of the total translation market. This means that translation jobs today are rarely conducted directly between client and translator. Instead, one single document often passes through multiple stages and sometimes through the hands of multiple translators.

There are pros and cons to this growing business model. On the one hand, the loss of direct contact between client and translator can make the process less personal, not to mention more complicated if any clarification about the documents is required. On the other hand, the increased number of people involved allows for more feedback, proofreading and an overall quality assurance throughout the entire translation process.

We’ve mapped out the Chain of Translation as a document passes through an MLV, to help you better understand how today’s translation industry is structured—and where you fit in.



At Literalis, we strive to bring you the intimacy of direct client to translator relations and the quality assurance of a large firm.  For more information, or to submit a document for translation, visit our website at or email us at

How to Obtain an Ontario’s Driver’s Licence

Posted by: On: November 15, 2016

For many, having a valid driver’s licence is about more than the ability to legally operate a moving vehicle. It is about the freedom and ease to come and go as life demands—in whichever direction it takes you.

If you are a newcomer to Ontario, you can continue to use a valid driver’s licence from your province, state or country of origin—but only for 60 days. After that, you must switch to an Ontario Driver’s Licence.

The province of Ontario operates with a graduated licencing process, requiring all drivers to complete two learning levels (G1 and G2) and pass two road exams before earning a full standard licence (G). The process is designed to give new drivers time to practice and gain driving experience, and can be completed over the course of two to five years.

Here are three steps you can take to make sure you don’t find yourself stranded on the side of the road.


  1. Check to see if you are eligible to simply exchange your original licence for an Ontario one.

The province of Ontario has exchange agreements with the following countries: Australia, Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Great Britain, the Isle of Man, Japan, Korea, Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and Switzerland. This means that if you are relocating from one of these countries, you can simply bring your valid foreign driver’s licence to a Service Ontario location and exchange it for an Ontario Driver’s Licence. This exchange policy, however, only applies to a full standard driver’s licences. It does not apply to learner’s permits, novice-class licences or motorcycle licences.


  1. Provide proof of past driving experience—and make sure to have it translated!

If your country of origin does not have an exchange agreement with Ontario, however, it does not necessarily mean that you need to start all the way at the beginning. Instead, you can fast-track the graduated process slightly by providing proof of past driving experience. This can come in the form of either your valid foreign licence or an official letter from the foreign government or agency that issued your original licence.

Your valid foreign licence grants you one year of driving experience, allowing you to skip the G1 level and immediately take the road test for your G2. The G2 licence allows drivers to drive without another experienced driver in the car, on all Ontario roads and at any time of day; but, like the G1, it still requires the driver to maintain a zero blood alcohol level ( You must have a minimum of 12 months of additional driving experience with a G2 licence before you can take the road test for a full G licence.

If you wish to skip the learning levels altogether, you can declare more than one year’s worth of driving experience by presenting an official letter from the foreign government or agency that issued your original licence. This official letter must clearly state your past driving experience and vouch for the authenticity of your foreign licence.

Of course, all proof of past driving experience must be presented in either English or French. If your original licence or official letter is not in English or French, you need to have it translated by a recognized, ministry-approved translator (hyperlink). In the regions of Central and Eastern Ontario and the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), a recognized ministry-approved translator is a translator who is either certified by a professional translation association (e.g. ATIO hyperlink) or accredited by the provincial or federal government.


  1. Apply for your Ontario Licence

Once you have your proof of experience documents translated by a certified or ministry-approved translator, you have six months to apply for your new Ontario licence in-person at a Driver Test Centre or a Service Ontario location.   There, you will need to: take an eye exam, present accepted identification, present proof of past driving experience and pay all applicable fees.

Depending on your circumstances, you may be asked to complete a written knowledge test or a road test. Computerized knowledge tests and paper-based G1 tests are available in 17 different languages; however, all other paper tests are available in English and French only. If you require a language translator, you can make arrangements for a verbal test to be administered by a DriveTest Center employee in the presence of a language translator. Road tests, on the other hand, are offered in English and French only. You cannot have a language translator, driving instructor or another passenger in the vehicle while you complete the exam. For more information click here.

Have questions or looking to get your driver’s licence translated? Write to us at

Translations Requirements and Professional Regulatory Bodies

Posted by: On: November 15, 2016

In Canada, certain professions and trades are regulated to protect public health and safety. This means you must secure the proper licence and/or certificate from at least one provincial professional regulatory body in order to work in—or even use the title of—that profession or trade. Failing to do so, can result in criminal persecution.

If you are new to Canada—and planning on working in a regulated field—you will be required to prove that you fulfill the minimum educational and training requirements in order to receive your certification. Every regulatory body has different requirements; however, it is fairly certain that you will have to provide copies of all relevant diplomas, degrees and transcripts in either English or French. If your original documents are not in English or French, you will have to have them translated. And those translations—more often than not—must be completed by a Canadian Certified Translator.

Here is a quick overview of the translation requirements for the 5 most sought after Professional Regulatory bodies in Ontario:

Professional Engineers Ontario

From the PEO website:

“If your academic documents are not in English, you are required to submit a notarized English translation as well as the original documents. You must also provide your detailed course descriptions (a syllabus) and an experience record for our review.

An official English translation of your documents must be certified by a translator from the Association of Translators and Interpreters of Ontario (ATIO) or prepared and certified by a Canadian Professional Engineer (P.Eng).”  


College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario

From the CPSO website:

All documents not written in the English or French language must be accompanied by certified English or French translations. All translations must be certified by one of the following:

  • A Certified Member of the Association of Translators and Interpreters of Ontario (ATIO). Translations completed by a certified member of the equivalent Association of Translators and Interpreters in another Canadian province/territory are also acceptable.
  • A Canadian Embassy overseas or a foreign embassy or consular office in Canada authorized to certify translations,
  • Translations sent by the medical school must be dated and stamped by the medical school to verify the
  • contents and received directly from the medical school with a copy of the original language document”

for the application forms, click here

College of Nurses of Ontario

From the CNO website:

“All documents submitted to the College as part of the application process must be in either English or French. This includes documents that come to the College directly from the official source (e.g., course transcripts should come to the College directly from the school that offered the program of study in question).

In instances where the College receives documents from official sources that are not in English or French, the College will send copies of the document(s) in question to the applicant, who will then be responsible for arranging translation of the document(s) by an approved translator.
If it is not possible to receive a translated copy of the document from the official source or a government body, the College will accept documents translated by certified translators.

All translations must be accompanied by an original statement from the translator that affirms:
• the translation is accurate and authentic
• the translator is an accredited member of a provincial association, society or corporation
• the identification number and/or seal, name, address and telephone number of the translator
• the printed name and original signature of the translator

After the translation is completed, the applicant must then arrange to have the translated document sent back to the College by the translator.”


College of Physiotherapists of Ontario

The College of Physiotherapists of Ontario provides a chart  that outlines the process and costs associated with becoming a physiotherapist in Ontario. Under translation, it stipulates that all translations must be completed by a Certified Translator.


Ontario College of Teachers

From the OCT website:

“You need to have documents translated if you received your education in a language other than English or French or if any of your documents (like a birth or marriage certificate) are in a language other than English or French.

For documents you submit yourself, such as a birth certificate, include the original translation with a copy of the certificate.

All translations must be accompanied by an original, signed letter from the translator indicating:

  • the translation is accurate and authentic
  • the translator belongs to one of the acceptable organizations (listed below)
  • their identification number and/or seal
  • their name, address and telephone number
  • their original signature”


All Health related professions are regulated. Other Regulated non-Health Professions include: Architecture, Chartered Accountants, Early Childhood Educators, Forestry, Geoscience, Human Resources Professionals, Insurance Brokers, Land Surveying, Law, Paralegal, Professional Engineering, Real Estate, Social Work, Veterinary medicine.

For more information regarding the different types of translation available in Canada, please check out our previous blog post.

For more information regarding the Association of Translators and Interpreters of Ontario (ATIO), please click here.

And of course, we always like to hear from you at

Navigating Translation Requirements in Canada

Posted by: On: November 7, 2016

No matter the purpose of your document translation, chances are you will have to deal with at least one official governmental, academic, financial or legal institution along the way. Understanding the translation requirements of the institution(s) to which you are submitting your documents can help make your entire process more efficient. Unfortunately, that isn’t always easy.

The information supplied by governmental departments, educational institutions and professional associations can be scarce, inconsistent and filled with legal jargon. As a result, even when translation requirements are presented, the terminology used may leave you feeling unsure if you have actually met all the requirements. Learning to decode this terminology can help you feel confident that you have chosen the correct translation service to meet your needs.

Here is a list of some commonly used translation terminology to help get you on your way.


Official vs. Certified Translation

The term “official translation” is often seen in institutional requirements; but it is actually an empty term that is not recognized legally or institutionally. What the term “official” might be referring to is a certified translation. A Certified Translation is a translation performed by a certified translator who is recognized as a member of at least one provincial regulatory body of translators. In Ontario, for example, that is the Association of Translators and Interpreters of Ontario (ATIO). All certified translations are accompanied by a Translator’s Declaration, complete with a stamp or seal that bears the translator’s name and membership number.

For more information regarding other provincial regulatory bodies of translators, please visit the Canadian Translators, Terminologist and Interpreters Council (CTTIC) website.


Professional vs. Certified Translators

All Certified Translators are professional translators; but, not all professional translators are certified. A Certified Translator is recognized as a member of one or more provincial regulatory associations (for example, ATIO, ATIA, OTTIAQ, STIBC, etc.). Certified translators are required to have completed the provincially-mandated training and education, to have written and passed both an entrance and certification exam and to have sworn an oath to provide true and faithful translations. Upon completion of these requirements, each translator is issued an official stamp or seal that bears their name and membership number and that certifies the accuracy and legality of the translation. Given these assurances, certified translations are recognized and accepted by most educational institutions and governmental agencies, including the CIC.


 Notarized Affidavit

Some institutions and programs request a notarized translation. A notarized translation is a translation that includes a sworn affidavit signed and stamped by a lawyer or legal commissioner of oaths. The affidavit is used to verify that the translation of a document accurately reflects what is stated in the document’s original language.

It is important to note that a notarized translation only validates the signature of the translator, not the accuracy of the translation itself. As a result, not all notarized translations are accepted by all institutions.

Furthermore, a notarization is often not required if the translation is done by a Certified Translator. Choosing a Certified Translator will not only guarantee the accuracy of your translated documents, but will end up saving you money (See the CIC website for more information).



Requirements for provincially issued documents, such as drivers’ licences, are specific to each ministry and can usually be found on ministry websites. The Ontario Ministry of Transport requires Drivers’ Licenses to be translated by a “ministry-approved” translator, which can include translators from “non-Canadian embassies, consulates and high commissioner’s offices” but does not include other “translators from the country where the licence was issued.” ATIO certified translations are accepted by the Ministry of Transportation Ontario.

It is very important that the translation of your documents meet the requirements of the institution to which it is being submitted. Failing to do so will require you to re-translate and re-submit your documents, resulting in an additional loss of time and money. If you are unsure of the institutional requirements or are submitting documents to more than one institution, it is highly recommended that you enlist the services of a Certified Translator.

Have some questions or in search of translation services. We can help! Visit our website or send us an email at

© 2016. Kaila Simoneau for Loretta Murphy Translations. All Rights Reserved.

5 Things to Do when Working with a Translator

Posted by: On: November 7, 2016

Whether you are immigrating to Canada, applying for post-secondary studies or looking to localize your business in a foreign market, we understand that navigating translation requirements can be a stressful, confusing and time-consuming process. But did you know that there are some things you can do while preparing your documents for translation that can help make the whole process go more smoothly?

Here are the Top 5 things you can do to more efficiently organize your documents, and help your translator more effectively help you.


  1. Do not wait until the last minute.

Certified translation takes time because it is performed and then reviewed by at least one professional translator. A quick-turn around on your documents may not always be possible, especially at times of peak demand. Always submit your documents for translation as soon as possible. Remember, if your translations are for legal or immigration purposes, there is always the possibility of having your documents sent back or requests for more information, and you don’t want to delay your process any more than you have to.


  1. Provide exact deadlines.

Of course you would like to receive your documents “as soon as possible”—but what exactly does that mean? A week? A day? Two hours from now? Saying that you need your documents translated ASAP does not provide a clear understanding of what is actually involved in the service. Instead, use fixed and firm deadlines. And remember: a realistic and concrete date is always appreciated.


  1. Make use of technology.

One of the perks of living in the digital age is that it is no longer necessary to make a trip to your translator’s office to submit your original documents. In fact, many certified translators today work from scanned copies submitted by email or through a company website.

If you do go the electronic route, make sure your scanned copies are clear (coloured scans at a higher resolution in pdf format are best) and well organized. Rather than allowing the scanner to number your documents, consider renaming them yourself with labels that clearly identify the content for each document. Labeling your documents “Transcript 1,” “Transcript 2,” or “Tax return 2016_1,” “Tax return 2016_2” can make the process more organized and more efficient—saving you both time and money.


  1. If you are submitting your documents to an official institution, be sure you understand the requirements.

Every governmental department, academic and financial institution and professional regulatory body selects their own translation requirements—and as a result, there is a great deal of variation. It is important therefore to always verify the translation specifications of the respective institution prior to submitting your documents. It may require investing a few hours on the phone, but it is worth it to avoid having your documents returned or worse rejected.

That being said, most departments and institutions require certified translation, completed by a translator who is a recognized member of the regulatory body of translators in the province in which you are submitting your documents. Certified translation is guaranteed to be accurate, reliable and officially recognized.


  1. Take responsibility for your own translation process.

We are here and happy to help you navigate whatever endeavor has brought you to seeking our services. But it is important to remember that we, like all translators, are often working on multiple documents at once. The more organized you are, the more organized our team of certified translators can be. And that is always going to help your process in general.

Looking for more information about our services? Post a comment or send us an email at


© 2016. Kaila Simoneau for Loretta Murphy Translations. All Rights Reserved.

Welcome to the Literalis Blog Spot!

Posted by: On: November 7, 2016

Dear Readers,

Welcome to our new blog here at Literalis!

As a Certified Translator working from Portuguese and Spanish to English, I have had the privilege of assisting my clients with the translation and preparation of their personal, business and immigration documents for more than 10 years. Now, it is my distinct pleasure to extend those services beyond the Portuguese and Spanish speaking communities. Our team of exceptional Certified Translators is capable of tackling any project in any one of the nine most prevalent languages in the Greater Toronto Area: French, Arabic, Cantonese, Farsi, German, Hindi, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Punjabi and English.

At Literalis, we understand that translation is about more than substituting words across languages. It’s about starting something new, whether that is a new project, a new business or an entirely new life in an entirely new country. That is why we take the time to understand the specific requirements of your translation project– to ensure that we are providing you not only with the right services, but also with the information and support you need to successfully see your endeavors through.

This blog is meant to be an extension of those efforts. Here, you will find important information to help you:

  • Navigate translation requirements across various government departments, academic institutions and professional regulatory bodies
  • Hire a Foreign Worker or apply for Permanent Residence
  • Localize your business or expand into previously untapped markets
  • Access services in other languages, including Health and Dental care, driving instruction, financial consultation or ESL training
  • And much more!

We will also discuss some of the major trends and developments within the translation industry itself— from Computer Assisted Technologies (CATs) to the certification process—all to help you make the best decisions you can regarding your translation needs.

Ultimately, this blog is meant to be a resource for you—a place where we can engage in conversations and share information that pertains to the translation services we provide on a daily process.

I look forward to seeing where those conversations take us!



Loretta Murphy, C. Tran.

© 2016. Kaila Simoneau for Loretta Murphy Translations. All Rights Reserved.

What You (and your boss) Need to Know about applying for an LMIA

Posted by: On: October 20, 2016

An LMIA, or Labour Market Impact Assessment, is a document obtained by a Canadian employer that allows them to hire a foreign worker. For those looking to enter Canada through the skilled worker or skilled trades streams, an LMIA job offer can make all the difference, earning you an additional 600 points towards your application through Canada’s new Express Entry system.

Silvia Bendo is a RCIC—or Regulated Canadian Immigration Consultant—based in Toronto. She specializes in helping skilled foreign workers—often with experience in the trades or construction— gain entry to Canada through one of several temporary and permanent foreign worker programs. We caught up with Bendo to discuss what you and your potential employer need to know about applying for an LMIA.


1.While an LMIA boosts an individual’s application, it is the potential employer, not the individual, that needs to apply for it.

Bendo’s clients are always looking for ways to add an LMIA job offer to their immigration packages. It isn’t hard to understand why. Within Canada’s new Express Entry system, securing an LMIA can boost an application by 10 points at the qualifying level and another 600 in the final Comprehensive Ranking System (CRS). But as a document that grants permission for a company to hire outside the Canadian labour pool, an LMIA is not granted to an individual, but rather to the company. As a skilled worker, the first step to securing an LMIA, therefore, is to find an employer willing and eager to hire you, and initiate the LMIA application process on your behalf.  To help make this match, check out the new and improved Government of Canada Job Bank.


2. There are two types of LMIA—a temporary LMIA and a Permanent LMIA—and they both have different fees.

The Temporary Foreign Worker Program (TFWP) offers foreign workers short term employment opportunities through two streams: Low-Wage positions or High Wage positions. It is the employer’s responsibility to determine and uphold the requirements of the appropriate stream by comparing the offered wage to the median hourly wage of the province/territory in which they are situated.

Permanent LMIAs, on the other hand, are designed to involve Canadian employers in the recruitment of immigrants seeking permanent residency in Canada, through three streams: the Federal Skilled Worker Program, the Federal Skilled Trades Program or—for those already working in Canada—the Canadian Experience Class.

Following overhauls to the LMIA program in June 2014, the application fee for a temporary LMIA is now $1000 CAN per foreign worker. The cost of applying for a permanent LMIA, on the other hand? Absolutely free.


3. The employer must actively make the position available to Canadian citizens and Permanent Residents before they can apply for an LMIA.

Before Canadian companies can apply for an LMIA to bring in either temporary or permanent foreign workers, they must first prove that they attempted to fill the position with someone from the Canadian workforce. LMIA applications therefore require that employers advertise the position for a minimum of 28 days—or four weeks— across three hiring platforms, including the Government of Canada’s online job bank. This advertising process must continue until the final hiring decision is made and employers are required to declare the number of Canadian candidates interviewed, vetted or even hired as part of the LMIA application.


4. Employers seeking temporary LMIAs must include a transition plan as part of the LMIA application.

Because the ultimate goal of the Canadian government is to support and grow the Canadian workforce, all applications for temporary LMIAs must include a transition plan: a ten page document which outlines five steps the company will take to recruit Canadians in the future. Such activities can include steps to make the position more appealing to already existing Canadian citizens and permanent residents, such as offering higher wages or recruiting among under-represented groups. But it can also include initiatives aimed at helping foreign workers brought in through temporary programs transition into permanent residents, such as by offering free language courses or transitioning the position into something more permanent.

Not all job sectors require an LMIA to hire a temporary foreign worker. For more information, or to find out if your industry is exempt, click here.

Have a question or comment? We’d love to hear from! Post below or write to us at

© 2016. Kaila Simoneau for Loretta Murphy Translations. All Rights Reserved.


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